linux oops message, is memory address virtual or physical?

user300811 asked:

In this error message:

BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at ffff8804c001fade

Is ffff8804c001fade the physical memory address or virtual memory address?

I answered:

Since I doubt you’ve actually managed to put 16 exbibytes of RAM into your server, logic demands that it’s a virtual address.

Indeed, in older kernels the message actually explicitly stated “unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address ########”…

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